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"Deficits in olfaction and taste are among the most frequent non-motor manifestations in Parkinson’s disease (PD) that start very early and frequently precede the PD motor symptoms."

The limited data available suggest that the basis of the olfactory and gustatory dysfunction related to PD are likely multifactorial and may include the same determinants responsible for other non-motor symptoms of PD. This review describes the most relevant molecular and genetic factors involved in the PD-related smell and taste impairments, and their associations with the microbiota, which also may represent risk factors associated with the disease.

Smell loss may precede a Parkinson's diagnosis by up to 10 years. Lasting smell loss can be a risk factor for brain disease.

Michael J. Fox Foundation

Help Eliminate Parkinson's Disease You Too Can Make A Difference

PPMI Clinical Study

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